Staging System

Staging System

A surgical staging system for musculoskeletal sarcomas is most logically accomplished by assessment of the surgical grade (G) the local extent (T), and the presence or absence of regional or distant metastases (M).

The initial staging system for bone sarcomas was described by Enneking et al., 1980 and adopted by the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society, both grade and metastasis are included, but the concept of compartments must be clarified further for tumors in bone. Intracompartmental bone tumors are within the confines of the cortex or the articular cartilage (T1), an extracompartmental bone tumors extend into the soft tissue (T2). The T1 designation also is applied to parosteal tumors that are not intraosseous or extrafascial.

Staging is the process of classifying a tumor, especially a malignant tumor, with respect to its degree of differentiation as well as its local and distant extent, in order to estimate the prognosis for the patient. Evaluation of the histological and imaging studies of a tumor allows the physician to formulate a rational strategy for treatment with operative intervention, medical therapy, or radiation therapy.